Robot, Questione di Etica

66
923
Gustavo A. Casañ

Ci sono molte domande alle quali scienziati, psicologi e sociologi stanno cercando risposte: i robot, sempre più simili agli uomini, devono rispondere a questioni di etica? E nel biodiritto, quanto impatta il progresso scientifico nel campo dell’intelligenza artificiale?

di Elio Nello Meucci

Fu Galileo per primo a capire quanto la meccanica possa essere uno strumento efficace: una scienza esatta per la quale i risultati del progresso tecnologico, per quanto apparentemente ‘magici’, sono animati soltanto da solidi principi. Oggi siamo sempre più vicini a un’intelligenza artificiale (AI) in grado di assumere iniziative, portare avanti uno scopo e fornire soluzioni in ambito lavorativo, medico e sociale. Galileo non poteva certo immaginare quanto il progresso avrebbe invaso la sfera umana, fino al punto da far nascere tra gli scienziati e la società civile comitati di bioetica e di neuroscienze per evitare derive alla ‘Blade Runner‘. Queste due parti del biodiritto sono state riviste nella sostanza, per far fronte alla rivoluzione tecnologica. I cambiamenti vogliono porre l’uomo al centro di tale progresso e i robot come soggetti terzi; regolati, per necessità di garanzie di sicurezza, da una bioetica ad-hoc.

«Che ne è del diritto mentre la tecnica s’impossessa del nascere e morire umano?». La domanda posta da Natalino Irti, avvocato e membro dell’Accademia dei Lincei, nel libro ‘Il diritto nell’età della tecnica‘, conduce direttamente al cuore del problema. Il giurista che tratta questioni di biodiritto non può fare a meno di confrontarsi con il sociologo o con il filosofo e con tutti gli esperti di altre discipline che potrebbero interagire con lui per una migliore soluzione del problema di volta in volta affrontato. Il biodiritto, infatti, è materia necessariamente interdisciplinare e, come tale, coinvolge esperienze e perizie diverse; e nell’imminente futuro dovrà tener conto anche di materie come l’intelligenza artificiale. I computer e gli automi, sono sempre più intelligenti, ma più accresce la loro capacità ‘cognitiva’ più cresce la necessità di garanzie sul loro comportamento. Varcare confini non ancora scoperti del mondo dell’AI, sarà il passo successivo verso il futuro, ma che può anche nascondere un pericolo reale.

Il concetto di confine penetra in diversi vocaboli della lingua italiana, per i romani terminus era la pietra o la linea di confine. I temi del biodiritto obbligano, più di altre, a un’opera di ricerca continua di confini che definiscano i limiti di dove spingere la ricerca, contestualmente, nella capacità di saperli superare quando ci si trova di fronte a materie complesse come l’AI. Oggi, come agli inizi del ‘900, sembra di vivere in un momento ideale per sviluppare nuove idee a supporto dell’uomo, e ovviamente i timori di un utilizzo sbagliato corrono parallele al progresso.

Le nuove tecnologie applicate alla robotica sono sempre più performanti per raggiungere un obiettivo. Ciò porterà inevitabilmente queste ‘intelligenze’ a trovarsi, alla fine, a dover prendere una decisione dove i confini sono molto labili. L’esempio più semplice sono le macchine autoguidate: cosa accadrebbe se per raggiungere un luogo, in quell’orario stabilito, l’automobile decidesse di investire i pedoni, magari perché riconosce solo quella come direzione corretta? O per evitarli si schiantasse contro un muro?

Molti scienziati, coadiuvati da sociologi ed economisti, si sono riuniti nel 2014 per stabilire delle regole e per orientarsi nel campo dell’intelligenza artificiale. Future of Life Institute, questo il nome del ‘patto’ firmato da molti esperti tra i quali Elon Musk e Stephen Hawking, ha dato il via a una serie d’incontri per confrontarsi con questi temi. Nel 2017, ad Asilomar (California), si è arrivati a una carta comune (Asilomar AI Principles) che stabilisce il principio fondante che: l’AI deve essere ‘benefica’ e ‘non priva di controllo’. La questione etica su quest’ultima definizione impatta con lo sviluppo tecnologico stesso; infatti, il machine learning identifica un software in grado di modificare il proprio comportamento in conformità a ciò che impara. È qui che l’uomo deve intervenire, secondo gli accordi stipulati, per limitare l’autodeterminazione dell’AI. Molte aziende importanti si stanno dotando di comitati etici, formati da giuristi, sociologi e scienziati per interpretare al meglio questi punti del biodiritto. Un esempio è la Deep Mind (Microsoft) che in collaborazione con Facebook, Amazon, IBM, ha fondato una società di ricerca sui sistemi di AI dotata appunto di un comitato per l’interpretazione della bioetica applicata ai robot. Anche perché «Quella delle macchine non sembra essere una marcia trionfale alla conquista del Pianeta», spiega Douglas Heaven, «il passato e il presente della robotica sono, anzi, costellati da ‘piccole difficoltà quotidiane’ che i robot faticano a superare. Per capire qual è il futuro degli automi con intelligenza artificiale, dobbiamo seguirli proprio in queste difficoltà». 

http://www.agid.gov.it/notizie/2018/03/16/intelligenza-artificiale-opportunita-sfide-cittadini-pa-agid-presenta-il-libro

66 Commenti

  1. In the grand pattern of things you secure an A+ with regard to effort and hard work. Where exactly you actually misplaced me was in your particulars. You know, they say, details make or break the argument.. And it could not be more true in this article. Having said that, let me say to you what did give good results. Your writing is actually highly persuasive and that is probably the reason why I am making an effort to comment. I do not really make it a regular habit of doing that. 2nd, while I can see a leaps in reasoning you come up with, I am not really certain of just how you appear to unite your ideas which in turn help to make the final result. For the moment I will, no doubt subscribe to your position but hope in the near future you link the facts better.

  2. Write more, thats all I have to say. Literally, it seems as though you relied on the video to make your point. You clearly know what youre talking about, why throw away your intelligence on just posting videos to your site when you could be giving us something enlightening to read?

  3. My spouse and I absolutely love your blog and find almost all of your post’s to be precisely what I’m looking for. Would you offer guest writers to write content for yourself? I wouldn’t mind producing a post or elaborating on most of the subjects you write about here. Again, awesome weblog!

  4. Thanks a lot for giving everyone an extraordinarily terrific chance to read in detail from this site. It really is so nice and packed with amusement for me and my office fellow workers to search your blog not less than thrice in one week to read the latest secrets you have. And indeed, I am also at all times happy with your remarkable secrets you serve. Certain 1 areas in this posting are unequivocally the simplest we have all ever had.

  5. Do you mind if I quote a few of your posts as long as I provide credit and sources back to your blog? My blog is in the exact same niche as yours and my visitors would genuinely benefit from some of the information you provide here. Please let me know if this okay with you. Thanks!

  6. Very good blog! Do you have any suggestions for aspiring writers? I’m hoping to start my own site soon but I’m a little lost on everything. Would you propose starting with a free platform like WordPress or go for a paid option? There are so many options out there that I’m completely overwhelmed .. Any tips? Bless you!

  7. Thank you a lot for giving everyone a very brilliant possiblity to read from here. It’s usually very kind plus packed with amusement for me and my office colleagues to search your website at least 3 times in one week to read the newest guides you have. Not to mention, I’m so always pleased concerning the stunning solutions you give. Certain 2 facts in this article are certainly the simplest we have ever had.

  8. Hmm it looks like your website ate my first comment (it was super long) so I guess I’ll just sum it up what I submitted and say, I’m thoroughly enjoying your blog. I too am an aspiring blog blogger but I’m still new to the whole thing. Do you have any recommendations for first-time blog writers? I’d really appreciate it.

  9. Hey very nice website!! Man .. Excellent .. Amazing .. I’ll bookmark your website and take the feeds also…I’m happy to find so many useful information here in the post, we need develop more strategies in this regard, thanks for sharing. . . . . .

  10. It’s a shame you don’t have a donate button! I’d definitely donate to this brilliant blog! I guess for now i’ll settle for book-marking and adding your RSS feed to my Google account. I look forward to brand new updates and will share this website with my Facebook group. Talk soon!

  11. Thank you for sharing excellent informations. Your web site is so cool. I am impressed by the details that you have on this website. It reveals how nicely you understand this subject. Bookmarked this website page, will come back for extra articles. You, my pal, ROCK! I found simply the information I already searched everywhere and simply couldn’t come across. What a perfect site.

  12. We’re a group of volunteers and opening a new scheme in our community. Your web site provided us with valuable info to work on. You have done an impressive job and our whole community will be thankful to you.

  13. Heya i’m for the first time here. I came across this board and I find It really useful & it helped me out a lot. I hope to give something back and help others like you helped me.

  14. I’m not sure where you’re getting your info, but great topic. I needs to spend some time learning much more or understanding more. Thanks for great info I was looking for this information for my mission.

  15. Thanks , I have just been searching for info about this subject for ages and yours is the best I have discovered till now. But, what about the bottom line? Are you sure about the source?

  16. This is the right blog for anyone who desires to find out about this topic. You notice a lot its nearly onerous to argue with you (not that I actually would need…HaHa). You definitely put a new spin on a topic thats been written about for years. Great stuff, simply nice!

  17. Hi there! This is kind of off topic but I need some advice from an established blog. Is it very hard to set up your own blog? I’m not very techincal but I can figure things out pretty fast. I’m thinking about creating my own but I’m not sure where to start. Do you have any tips or suggestions? Thank you

  18. You can definitely see your enthusiasm within the work you write. The world hopes for more passionate writers such as you who are not afraid to mention how they believe. Always go after your heart.

  19. naturally like your website but you have to check the spelling on quite a few of your posts. Many of them are rife with spelling issues and I find it very bothersome to tell the truth nevertheless I will definitely come back again.

  20. Hey very cool web site!! Man .. Beautiful .. Wonderful .. I’ll bookmark your web site and take the feeds additionally…I am satisfied to find a lot of useful information here within the submit, we’d like develop more techniques on this regard, thanks for sharing. . . . . .

  21. A formidable share, I just given this onto a colleague who was doing slightly analysis on this. And he in fact bought me breakfast because I found it for him.. smile. So let me reword that: Thnx for the treat! However yeah Thnkx for spending the time to discuss this, I feel strongly about it and love reading more on this topic. If doable, as you become expertise, would you thoughts updating your weblog with more particulars? It’s highly useful for me. Large thumb up for this weblog publish!

  22. We are a gaggle of volunteers and opening a brand new scheme in our community. Your web site provided us with helpful information to paintings on. You have done an impressive activity and our whole community will likely be grateful to you.

  23. It is appropriate time to make some plans for the future and it’s time to be happy. I’ve read this publish and if I could I want to counsel you few fascinating things or tips. Perhaps you could write next articles relating to this article. I wish to learn more issues approximately it!

  24. Throughout this awesome scheme of things you’ll secure an A just for effort. Exactly where you actually confused us ended up being in your particulars. As as the maxim goes, details make or break the argument.. And it couldn’t be much more true right here. Having said that, let me tell you what did give good results. Your article (parts of it) is very powerful which is most likely why I am making an effort to opine. I do not really make it a regular habit of doing that. Next, even though I can certainly see the jumps in logic you make, I am not necessarily certain of just how you appear to connect your points that make the final result. For right now I shall subscribe to your position but trust in the future you link your facts much better.

  25. I am no longer positive the place you are getting your info, however good topic. I needs to spend some time studying more or working out more. Thank you for great information I was in search of this info for my mission.

  26. Very good site you have here but I was curious if you knew of any discussion boards that cover the same topics talked about here? I’d really love to be a part of online community where I can get feed-back from other experienced people that share the same interest. If you have any recommendations, please let me know. Cheers!

  27. Nice post. I was checking continuously this blog and I’m impressed! Extremely useful information specifically the last part 🙂 I care for such information a lot. I was looking for this certain information for a long time. Thank you and best of luck.

  28. Greetings! I know this is kinda off topic nevertheless I’d figured I’d ask. Would you be interested in trading links or maybe guest authoring a blog post or vice-versa? My blog discusses a lot of the same subjects as yours and I believe we could greatly benefit from each other. If you happen to be interested feel free to send me an e-mail. I look forward to hearing from you! Wonderful blog by the way!

  29. My partner and I stumbled over here by a different website and thought I might check things out. I like what I see so i am just following you. Look forward to exploring your web page yet again.

  30. Great goods from you, man. I’ve understand your stuff previous to and you are just extremely great. I actually like what you’ve acquired here, certainly like what you are stating and the way in which you say it. You make it entertaining and you still care for to keep it sensible. I cant wait to read much more from you. This is really a great web site.

  31. Hmm it looks like your site ate my first comment (it was super long) so I guess I’ll just sum it up what I submitted and say, I’m thoroughly enjoying your blog. I as well am an aspiring blog blogger but I’m still new to the whole thing. Do you have any helpful hints for first-time blog writers? I’d really appreciate it.

  32. Youre so cool! I dont suppose Ive read something like this before. So good to seek out someone with some unique ideas on this subject. realy thanks for starting this up. this website is one thing that’s wanted on the web, somebody with just a little originality. helpful job for bringing one thing new to the internet!

  33. I simply had to thank you very much all over again. I do not know the things I would have implemented without these recommendations contributed by you relating to that problem. It seemed to be the terrifying issue in my opinion, but considering the skilled style you processed that forced me to jump with contentment. Now i’m happy for your guidance and even hope that you comprehend what a powerful job you were getting into educating the rest via your web page. Probably you have never come across all of us.

LASCIA UN COMMENTO

Per favore inserisci il tuo commento!
Per favore inserisci il tuo nome qui